This package provides a callback-based Redux middleware that we plan to include in Redux Toolkit directly in the next feature release. We're publishing it as a standalone package to allow users to try it out separately and give us feedback on its API design.

Usage no npm install needed!

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RTK Incubator - Action Listener Middleware

This package provides a callback-based Redux middleware that we plan to include in Redux Toolkit directly in the next feature release. We're publishing it as a standalone package to allow users to try it out separately and give us feedback on its API design.

This middleware lets you define "listener" entries containing "effect" callbacks that will run in response to specific actions being dispatched. It's intended to be a lightweight alternative to more widely used Redux async middleware like sagas and observables. While similar to thunks in level of complexity and concept, it can be used to replicate some common saga usage patterns.

Conceptually, you can think of this as being similar to React's useEffect hook, except that it runs logic in response to Redux store updates instead of component props/state updates.


npm i @rtk-incubator/action-listener-middleware

yarn add @rtk-incubator/action-listener-middleware

Basic Usage

import { configureStore } from '@reduxjs/toolkit'
import { createListenerMiddleware } from '@rtk-incubator/action-listener-middleware'

import todosReducer, {
} from '../features/todos/todosSlice'

// Create the middleware instance and methods
const listenerMiddleware = createListenerMiddleware()

// Add one or more listener entries that look for specific actions.
// They may contain any sync or async logic, similar to thunks.
  actionCreator: todoAdded,
  effect: async (action, listenerApi) => {
    // Run whatever additional side-effect-y logic you want here
    console.log('Todo added: ', action.payload.text)

    // Can cancel other running instances

    // Run async logic
    const data = await fetchData()

    // Pause until action dispatched or state changed
    if (await listenerApi.condition(matchSomeAction)) {
      // Use the listener API methods to dispatch, get state,
      // unsubscribe the listener, or cancel previous
      listenerApi.dispatch(todoAdded('Buy pet food'))

const store = configureStore({
  reducer: {
    todos: todosReducer,
  // Add the listener middleware to the store.
  // NOTE: Since this can receive actions with functions inside,
  // it should go before the serializability check middleware
  middleware: (getDefaultMiddleware) =>


The Redux community has settled around three primary side effects libraries over time:

  • Thunks use basic functions passed to dispatch. They let users run arbitrary logic, including dispatching actions and getting state. These are mostly used for basic AJAX requests and logic that needs to read from state before dispatching actions
  • Sagas use generator functions and a custom set of "effects" APIs, which are then executed by a middleware. Sagas let users write powerful async logic and workflows that can respond to any dispatched action, including "background thread"-type behavior like infinite loops and cancelation.
  • Observables use RxJS observable operators. Observables form pipelines that do arbitrary processing similar to sagas, but with a more functional API style.

All three of those have strengths and weaknesses:

  • Thunks are simple to use, but can only run imperative code and have no way to respond to dispatched actions
  • Sagas are extremely powerful, but require learning generator functions and the specifics of redux-saga's effects API, and are overkill for many simpler use cases
  • Observables are also powerful, but RxJS is its own complex API to learn and they can be hard to debug

If you need to run some code in response to a specific action being dispatched, you could write a custom middleware:

const myMiddleware = (storeAPI) => (next) => (action) => {
  if (action.type === 'some/specificAction') {
    console.log('Do something useful here')

  return next(action)

However, it would be nice to have a more structured API to help abstract this process.

The createListenerMiddleware API provides that structure.

For more background and debate over the use cases and API design, see the original discussion issue and PR:

API Reference

createListenerMiddleware lets you add listeners by providing an "effect callback" containing additional logic, and a way to specify when that callback should run based on dispatched actions or state changes.

The middleware then gives you access to dispatch and getState for use in your effect callback's logic, similar to thunks. The listener also receives a set of async workflow functions like take, condition, pause, fork, and unsubscribe, which allow writing more complex async logic.

Listeners can be defined statically by calling listenerMiddleware.startListening() during setup, or added and removed dynamically at runtime with special dispatch(addListener()) and dispatch(removeListener()) actions.

createListenerMiddleware: (options?: CreateMiddlewareOptions) => ListenerMiddlewareInstance

Creates an instance of the middleware, which should then be added to the store via configureStore's middleware parameter.

Current options are:

  • extra: an optional "extra argument" that will be injected into the listenerApi parameter of each listener. Equivalent to the "extra argument" in the Redux Thunk middleware.

  • onError: an optional error handler that gets called with synchronous and async errors raised by listener and synchronous errors thrown by predicate.

createListenerMiddleware returns an object (similar to how createSlice does), with the following fields:

  • middleware: the actual listener middleware instance. Add this to configureStore()
  • startListening: adds a single listener entry to this specific middleware instance
  • stopListening: removes a single listener entry from this specific middleware instance
  • clearListeners: removes all listener entries from this specific middleware instance

startListening(options: AddListenerOptions) : Unsubscribe

Statically adds a new listener entry to the middleware.

The available options are:

type ListenerPredicate<Action extends AnyAction, State> = (
  action: Action,
  currentState?: State,
  originalState?: State
) => boolean

interface AddListenerOptions {
  // Four options for deciding when the listener will run:

  // 1) Exact action type string match
  type?: string

  // 2) Exact action type match based on the RTK action creator
  actionCreator?: ActionCreator

  // 3) Match one of many actions using an RTK matcher
  matcher?: Matcher

  // 4) Return true based on a combination of action + state
  predicate?: ListenerPredicate

  // The actual callback to run when the action is matched
  effect: (action: Action, listenerApi: ListenerApi) => void | Promise<void>

You must provide exactly one of the four options for deciding when the listener will run: type, actionCreator, matcher, or predicate. Every time an action is dispatched, each listener will be checked to see if it should run based on the current action vs the comparison option provided.

These are all acceptable:

// 1) Action type string
startListening({ type: 'todos/todoAdded', listener })
// 2) RTK action creator
startListening({ actionCreator: todoAdded, listener })
// 3) RTK matcher function
startListening({ matcher: isAnyOf(todoAdded, todoToggled), listener })
// 4) Listener predicate
  predicate: (action, currentState, previousState) => {
    // return true when the listener should run

Note that the predicate option actually allows matching solely against state-related checks, such as "did state.x change" or "the current value of state.x matches some criteria", regardless of the actual action.

The "matcher" utility functions included in RTK are acceptable as predicates.

The return value is a standard unsubscribe() callback that will remove this listener. If you try to add a listener entry but another entry with this exact function reference already exists, no new entry will be added, and the existing unsubscribe method will be returned.

The effect callback will receive the current action as its first argument, as well as a "listener API" object similar to the "thunk API" object in createAsyncThunk.

All listener predicates and callbacks are checked after the root reducer has already processed the action and updated the state. The listenerApi.getOriginalState() method can be used to get the state value that existed before the action that triggered this listener was processed.

stopListening(options: AddListenerOptions): boolean

Removes a given listener. It accepts the same arguments as startListening(). It checks for an existing listener entry by comparing the function references of listener and the provided actionCreator/matcher/predicate function or type string.

Returns true if the options.effect listener has been removed, or false if no subscription matching the input provided has been found.

// 1) Action type string
stopListening({ type: 'todos/todoAdded', listener })
// 2) RTK action creator
stopListening({ actionCreator: todoAdded, listener })
// 3) RTK matcher function
stopListening({ matcher, listener })
// 4) Listener predicate
stopListening({ predicate, listener })

clearListeners(): void

Removes all current listener entries. This is most likely useful for test scenarios where a single middleware or store instance might be used in multiple tests, as well as some app cleanup situations.


A standard RTK action creator, imported from the package. Dispatching this action tells the middleware to dynamically add a new listener at runtime. It accepts exactly the same options as startListening()

Dispatching this action returns an unsubscribe() callback from dispatch.

// Per above, provide `predicate` or any of the other comparison options
const unsubscribe = store.dispatch(addListener({ predicate, listener }))


A standard RTK action creator, imported from the package. Dispatching this action tells the middleware to dynamically remove a listener at runtime. Accepts the same arguments as stopListening().

Returns true if the options.listener listener has been removed, false if no subscription matching the input provided has been found.

store.dispatch(removeListener({ predicate, listener }))


A standard RTK action creator, imported from the package. Dispatching this action tells the middleware to dynamically remove all listeners at runtime.



The listenerApi object is the second argument to each listener callback. It contains several utility functions that may be called anywhere inside the listener's logic. These can be divided into several categories:

Store Interaction Methods

  • dispatch: Dispatch: the standard store.dispatch method
  • getState: () => State: the standard store.getState method
  • getOriginalState: () => State: returns the store state as it existed when the action was originally dispatched, before the reducers ran. (Note: this method can only be called synchronously, during the initial dispatch call stack, to avoid memory leaks. Calling it asynchronously will throw an error.)

dispatch and getState are exactly the same as in a thunk. getOriginalState can be used to compare the original state before the listener was started.

Middleware Options

  • extra: unknown: the "extra argument" that was provided as part of the middleware setup, if any

extra can be used to inject a value such as an API service layer into the middleware at creation time, and is accessible here.

Listener Subscription Management

  • unsubscribe: () => void: will remove the listener from the middleware
  • subscribe: () => void: will re-subscribe the listener if it was previously removed, or no-op if currently subscribed
  • cancelActiveListeners: () => void: cancels all other running instances of this same listener except for the one that made this call. (The cancelation will only have a meaningful effect if the other instances are paused using one of the cancelation-aware APIs like take/cancel/pause/delay - see "Cancelation and Task Management" in the "Usage" section for more details)
  • signal: AbortSignal: An AbortSignal whose aborted property will be set to true if the listener execution is aborted or completed.

Dynamically unsubscribing and re-subscribing this listener allows for more complex async workflows, such as avoiding duplicate running instances by calling listenerApi.unsubscribe() at the start of a listener, or calling listenerApi.cancelActiveListeners() to ensure that only the most recent instance is allowed to complete.

Conditional Workflow Execution

  • take: (predicate: ListenerPredicate, timeout?: number) => Promise<[Action, State, State] | null>: returns a promise that will resolve when the predicate returns true. The return value is the [action, currentState, previousState] combination that the predicate saw as arguments. If a timeout is provided and expires first, the promise resolves to null.
  • condition: (predicate: ListenerPredicate, timeout?: number) => Promise<boolean>: Similar to take, but resolves to true if the predicate succeeds, and false if a timeout is provided and expires first. This allows async logic to pause and wait for some condition to occur before continuing. See "Writing Async Workflows" below for details on usage.
  • delay: (timeoutMs: number) => Promise<void>: returns a cancelation-aware promise that resolves after the timeout, or rejects if canceled before the expiration
  • pause: (promise: Promise<T>) => Promise<T>: accepts any promise, and returns a cancelation-aware promise that either resolves with the argument promise or rejects if canceled before the resolution

These methods provide the ability to write conditional logic based on future dispatched actions and state changes. Both also accept an optional timeout in milliseconds.

take resolves to a [action, currentState, previousState] tuple or null if it timed out, whereas condition resolves to true if it succeeded or false if timed out.

take is meant for "wait for an action and get its contents", while condition is meant for checks like if (await condition(predicate)).

Both these methods are cancelation-aware, and will throw a TaskAbortError if the listener instance is canceled while paused.

Child Tasks

  • fork: (executor: (forkApi: ForkApi) => T | Promise<T>) => ForkedTask<T>: Launches a "child task" that may be used to accomplish additional work. Accepts any sync or async function as its argument, and returns a {result, cancel} object that can be used to check the final status and return value of the child task, or cancel it while in-progress.

Child tasks can be launched, and waited on to collect their return values. The provided executor function will be called with a forkApi object containing {pause, delay, signal}, allowing it to pause or check cancelation status. It can also make use of the listenerApi from the listener's scope.

An example of this might be a listener that forks a child task containing an infinite loop that listens for events from a server. The parent then uses listenerApi.condition() to wait for a "stop" action, and cancels the child task.

The task and result types are:

export interface ForkedTaskAPI {
  pause<W>(waitFor: Promise<W>): Promise<W>
  delay(timeoutMs: number): Promise<void>
  signal: AbortSignal

export type TaskResolved<T> = {
  readonly status: 'ok'
  readonly value: T

export type TaskRejected = {
  readonly status: 'rejected'
  readonly error: unknown

export type TaskCancelled = {
  readonly status: 'cancelled'
  readonly error: TaskAbortError

export type TaskResult<Value> =
  | TaskResolved<Value>
  | TaskRejected
  | TaskCancelled

export interface ForkedTask<T> {
  result: Promise<TaskResult<T>>
  cancel(): void

Usage Guide

Overall Purpose

This middleware lets you run additional logic when some action is dispatched, as a lighter-weight alternative to middleware like sagas and observables that have both a heavy runtime bundle cost and a large conceptual overhead.

This middleware is not intended to handle all possible use cases. Like thunks, it provides you with a basic set of primitives (including access to dispatch and getState), and gives you freedom to write any sync or async logic you want. This is both a strength (you can do anything!) and a weakness (you can do anything, with no guard rails!).

As of v0.5.0, the middleware does include several async workflow primitives that are sufficient to write equivalents to many Redux-Saga effects operators like takeLatest, takeLeading, and debounce.

Standard Usage Patterns

The most common expected usage is "run some logic after a given action was dispatched". For example, you could set up a simple analytics tracker by looking for certain actions and sending extracted data to the server, including pulling user details from the store:

  matcher: isAnyOf(action1, action2, action3),
  effect: (action, listenerApi) => {
    const user = selectUserDetails(listenerApi.getState())

    const { specialData } = action.meta

    analyticsApi.trackUsage(action.type, user, specialData)

However, the predicate option also allows triggering logic when some state value has changed, or when the state matches a particular condition:

  predicate: (action, currentState, previousState) => {
    // Trigger logic whenever this field changes
    return currentState.counter.value !== previousState.counter.value

  predicate: (action, currentState, previousState) => {
    // Trigger logic after every action if this condition is true
    return currentState.counter.value > 3

You could also implement a generic API fetching capability, where the UI dispatches a plain action describing the type of resource to be requested, and the middleware automatically fetches it and dispatches a result action:

  actionCreator: resourceRequested,
  effect: async (action, listenerApi) => {
    const { name, args } = action.payload

    const res = await serverApi.fetch(`/api/${name}`, ...args)

The listenerApi.unsubscribe method may be used at any time, and will remove the listener from handling any future actions. As an example, you could create a one-shot listener by unconditionally calling unsubscribe() in the body - it would run the first time the relevant action is seen, and then immediately stop and not handle any future actions. (The middleware actually uses this technique internally for the take/condition methods)

Writing Async Workflows with Conditions

One of the great strengths of both sagas and observables is their support for complex async workflows, including stopping and starting behavior based on specific dispatched actions. However, the weakness is that both require mastering a complex API with many unique operators (effects methods like call() and fork() for sagas, RxJS operators for observables), and both add a significant amount to application bundle size.

While the listener middleware is not meant to fully replace sagas or observables, it does provide a carefully chosen set of APIs to implement long-running async workflows as well.

Listeners can use the condition and take methods in listenerApi to wait until some action is dispatched or state check is met. The condition method is directly inspired by the condition function in Temporal.io's workflow API (credit to @swyx for the suggestion!), and take is inspired by the take effect from Redux-Saga.

The signatures are:

type ConditionFunction<Action extends AnyAction, State> = (
  predicate: ListenerPredicate<Action, State> | (() => boolean),
  timeout?: number
) => Promise<boolean>

type TakeFunction<Action extends AnyAction, State> = (
  predicate: ListenerPredicate<Action, State> | (() => boolean),
  timeout?: number
) => Promise<[Action, State, State] | null>

You can use await condition(somePredicate) as a way to pause execution of your listener callback until some criteria is met.

The predicate will be called before and after every action is processed, and should return true when the condition should resolve. (It is effectively a one-shot listener itself.) If a timeout number (in ms) is provided, the promise will resolve true if the predicate returns first, or false if the timeout expires. This allows you to write comparisons like if (await condition(predicate)).

This should enable writing longer-running workflows with more complex async logic, such as the "cancellable counter" example from Redux-Saga.

An example of usage, from the test suite:

test('condition method resolves promise when there is a timeout', async () => {
  let finalCount = 0
  let listenerStarted = false

    predicate: (action, currentState: CounterState) => {
      return increment.match(action) && currentState.value === 0
    effect: async (action, listenerApi) => {
      listenerStarted = true
      // Wait for either the counter to hit 3, or 50ms to elapse
      const result = await listenerApi.condition(
        (action, currentState: CounterState) => {
          return currentState.value === 3

      // In this test, we expect the timeout to happen first
      // Save the state for comparison outside the listener
      const latestState = listenerApi.getState()
      finalCount = latestState.value

  // The listener should have started right away


  // If we wait 150ms, the condition timeout will expire first
  await delay(150)
  // Update the state one more time to confirm the listener isn't checking it

  // Handled the state update before the delay, but not after

Cancelation and Task Management

As of 0.5.0, the middleware now supports cancelation of running listener instances, take/condition/pause/delay functions, and "child tasks", with an implementation based on AbortController.

The listenerApi.pause/delay() functions provide a cancelation-aware way to have the current listener sleep. pause() accepts a promise, while delay accepts a timeout value. If the listener is canceled while waiting, a TaskAbortError will be thrown. In addition, both take and condition support cancelation interruption as well.

listenerApi.fork() can used to launch "child tasks" that can do additional work. These can be waited on to collect their results. An example of this might look like:

  actionCreator: increment,
  effect: async (action, listenerApi) => {
    // Spawn a child task and start it immediately
    const task = listenerApi.fork(async (forkApi) => {
      // Artificially wait a bit inside the child
      await forkApi.delay(5)
      // Complete the child by returning an Ovalue
      return 42

    const result = await task.result
    // Unwrap the child result in the listener
    if (result.status === 'ok') {
      console.log('Child succeeded: ', result.value)

Complex Async Workflows

The provided async workflow primitives (cancelActiveListeners, unsuscribe, subscribe, take, condition, pause, delay) can be used to implement many of the more complex async workflow capabilities found in the Redux-Saga library. This includes effects such as throttle, debounce, takeLatest, takeLeading, and fork/join. Some examples:

test('debounce / takeLatest', async () => {
  // Repeated calls cancel previous ones, no work performed
  // until the specified delay elapses without another call
  // NOTE: This is also basically identical to `takeLatest`.
  // Ref: https://redux-saga.js.org/docs/api#debouncems-pattern-saga-args
  // Ref: https://redux-saga.js.org/docs/api#takelatestpattern-saga-args

    actionCreator: increment,
    effect: async (action, listenerApi) => {
      // Cancel any in-progress instances of this listener

      // Delay before starting actual work
      await listenerApi.delay(15)

      // do work here

test('takeLeading', async () => {
  // Starts listener on first action, ignores others until task completes
  // Ref: https://redux-saga.js.org/docs/api#takeleadingpattern-saga-args

    actionCreator: increment,
    effect: async (action, listenerApi) => {

      // Stop listening for this action

      // Pretend we're doing expensive work

      // Re-enable the listener

test('canceled', async () => {
  // canceled allows checking if the current task was canceled
  // Ref: https://redux-saga.js.org/docs/api#cancelled

  let canceledAndCaught = false
  let canceledCheck = false

  // Example of canceling prior instances conditionally and checking cancelation
    matcher: isAnyOf(increment, decrement, incrementByAmount),
    effect: async (action, listenerApi) => {
      if (increment.match(action)) {
        // Have this branch wait around to be canceled by the other
        try {
          await listenerApi.delay(10)
        } catch (err) {
          // Can check cancelation based on the exception and its reason
          if (err instanceof TaskAbortError) {
            canceledAndCaught = true
      } else if (incrementByAmount.match(action)) {
        // do a non-cancelation-aware wait
        await delay(15)
        if (listenerApi.signal.aborted) {
          canceledCheck = true
      } else if (decrement.match(action)) {

TypeScript Usage

The code is fully typed. However, the startListening and addListener functions do not know what the store's RootState type looks like by default, so getState() will return unknown.

To fix this, the middleware provides types for defining "pre-typed" versions of those methods, similar to the pattern used for defing pre-typed React-Redux hooks:

// listenerMiddleware.ts
import {
} from '@rtk-incubator/action-listener-middleware'
import type {
} from '@rtk-incubator/action-listener-middleware'

import type { RootState } from './store'

export const listenerMiddleware = createListenerMiddleware()

export const startAppListening =
  listenerMiddleware.startListening as TypedStartListening<RootState>
export const addAppListener = addListener as TypedAddListenern<RootState>

Then import and use those pre-typed versions in your components.


Please provide feedback in RTK discussion #1648: "New experimental "action listener middleware" package".