Notifier allows services to update clients about state changes using a stream of promises

Usage no npm install needed!

<script type="module">
  import agoricNotifier from 'https://cdn.skypack.dev/@agoric/notifier';


NotifierKits and SubscriptionKits

This package provides two similar abstractions for producing and consuming asynchronous value sequences, the NotifierKit and the SubscriptionKit. Both let a service notify clients of state changes.

In JavaScript, async iterations are manipulated by AsyncGenerators, AsyncIterables, and AsyncIterators. For an introduction to these concepts and implementations, see here.

For NotifierKit user documentation see here. The following doc more precisely describes the semantics of the NotifierKit and the SubscriptionKit, their distributed system properties, and what this means for when to use each one.

Distributed Asynchronous Iteration

JavaScript's async iterations are manipulated by AsyncGenerators, AsyncIterables, and AsyncIterators. An async iteration is an abstract sequence of values. It consists of any number of non-final values in a fully ordered sequence revealed asynchronously over time. In other words, the values have a full ordering, and all consumers see the whole sequence, or a subset of it, in the same order.

The sequence may continue indefinitely or may terminate in one of two ways:

  • Finish: The async iteration successfully completes and reports a final completion value, Which can be any JavaScript value.
  • Fail: The async iteration fails and a gives a reported final reason. This should be an error
    object, but can be any JavaScript value.

Finish and Fail are final values. To avoid possible confusion, for iteration values in this doc, "final" and "non-final" just refer to position in an iteration, and not "final" in the sense of the Java keyword or similar.

makeNotifierKit() makes an {updater, notifier} pair, while makeSubscriptionKit() makes a similar {publication, subscription} pair. Each pair’s first element (updater or publication) produces the async iteration which is then consumed using each pair’s second element (notifier or subscription).

notifier and subscription both implement the JavaScript AsyncIterable API to consume the iteration. Both updater and publication implement the IterationObserver API, as defined in this package (JavaScript has no standard for producing iterations). For both pairs: IterationObserver provides only the ability to produce the iteration. AsyncIterable provides only the ability to consume the iteration.


Let’s look at an example using makeSubscriptionKit() There are three “characters”; Paula the publisher, and Alice and Bob, who are both subscribers but use different tools to consume the iteration.

You can use the JavaScript AsyncIterable API directly, but it is more convenient to either use: the JavaScript for-await-of syntax or the observeIteration adaptor.

Below, Paula publishes an iteration with the non-final sequence 'a', 'b' which terminates with 'done' as its completion value.

const { publication, subscription } = makeSubscriptionKit();
// Paula the publisher says

Alice, the subscriber, consumes the iteration using the for-await-of loop. She can see the non-final values and whether the iteration completes or fails. She can see a failure reason, but the for-await-of syntax does not let her see the completion value 'done'. While she can write code that only executes after the loop finishes, the code won’t know if the completion value was “done”, “completed”, or something else. This is a limitation of JavaScript's iteration, whether asynchronous or synchronous (as consumed by a for-of loop).

const consume = async subscription => {
  try {
    for await (const val of subscription) {
      console.log('non-final', val);
    console.log('the iteration finished');
  } catch (reason) {
    console.log('the iteration failed', reason);
// eventually prints
// non-final a
// non-final b
// the iteration finished

Bob consumes using the observeIteration(asyncIterableP, iterationObserver) adaptor.

const observer = harden({
  updateState: val => console.log('non-final', val),
  finish: completion => console.log('finished', completion),
  fail: reason => console.log('failed', reason),
observeIteration(subscription, observer);
// eventually prints
// non-final a
// non-final b
// finished done

Note that SubscriptionKit is a lossless conveyor of values. It conveys all of an async iteration’s non-final values, as well as the final value.

On the other hand, NotifierKit is a lossy conveyor of non-final values, but does also losslessly convey termination. Had the example above started with the following instead of using makeSubscriberKit(),

const { updater, notifier } = makeNotifierKit();

The code is still correct (assuming we also rename publication to updater and subscription to notifier in the rest of the code). However, Alice and Bob may each have missed either or both of the non-final values due to NotifierKit’s lossy nature.

Distributed Operation

Either makeNotifierKit or makeSubscriberKit can be used in a multicast manner with good distributed systems properties, where there is only one producing site but any number of consuming sites. The producer is not vulnerable to the consumers; they cannot cause the kit to malfunction or prevent the code producing values from making progress. The consumers are not vulnerable to each other; one can’t cause other consumers to hang or miss values.

For distributed operation, all the iteration values---non-final values, successful completion value, failure reason---must be Passable; values that can somehow be passed between vats. The rest of this doc assumes all these values are Passable.

The makeNotifierKit() or makeSubscriptionKit() call makes the notifier/updater or publication/subscription pair on the producer's site. As a result, both the iterationObserver and the initial asyncIterable are on the producer's site. If Producer Paula sends Consumer Bob the asyncIterable, Bob receives a possibly remote reference to the asyncIterable. Consumers can be remote from the producer of their consumed content.

Bob's code above is still correct if he uses this reference directly, since observeIteration only needs its first argument to be a reference of some sort to an AsyncIterable conveying Passable values. This reference may be a local AsyncIterable, a remote presence of an AsyncIterable, or a local or remote promise for an AsyncIterable. observeIteration only sends it eventual messages using E (equivalent to the tildot syntax ~.), and so doesn't care about these differences.

While correct, Bob’s code is sub-optimal. Its distributed systems properties are not terrible, but Bob does better using getSharableSubscriptionInternals() (provided by SubscriptionKit). This lets Bob make a local AsyncIterable that coordinates better with producer Paula's IterationObserver.

Subscriber Alice's above code is less forgiving. She's using JavaScript's for-await-of loop which requires a local AsyncIterable. It cannot handle a remote reference to an AsyncIterable at Paula's site. Alice has to make an AsyncIterable at her site by using getSharableSubsciptionInternals(). She can replace her call to consume(subscription) with:

import { makeSubscription } from '@agoric/notifier';

const localSubscription =

The above used a SubscriptionKit. NotifierKits have a similar pair of a getSharableNotifierInternals method and a makeNotifier. However, this technique requires that Alice know what kind of possibly-remote AsyncIterable she has, and to have the required making function code locally available.

Alternatively, Alice can generically mirror any possibly remote AsyncIterable by making a new local pair and plugging them together with observeIteration.

const {
  publication: adapterPublication,
  subscription: adapterSubscription
} = makeSubscriptionKit();
observeIteration(subscription, adapterPublication);

This works when subscription is a reference to any AsyncIterable. If Alice only needs to consume in a lossy manner, she can use makeNotifierKit() instead, which still works independently of what kind of AsyncIterable subscription is a reference to.

NotifierKit vs SubscriptionKit

An iteration subset may be a valid iteration. NotifierKit and SubscriptionKit are each organized around a different way of subsetting one iteration into another.


A NotifierKit producer produces iteration values with the updater using the IterationObserver API. Its consumers consume iteration values via the notifier using the AsyncIterable API. Each NotifierKit consumer iteration is a sampling subset of the iteration produced by that NotifierKit producer. Different consumers may see different sampling subsets.

An iteration’s sampling subset:

  • May omit some of the original iteration’s non-final values.
  • All sampling subset non-final values are in the original’s non-final values in the same order.
  • The original and the subset both have the same termination.
  • Once an original iteration value is available, either that value or a later one will become available on each sampling subset promptly, i.e. eventually and without waiting on any other manual steps. In other words, If a value 'a' is introduced on the producer end, then all clients either promptly see 'a', or won't see 'a' but will promptly see a successor. So if two values are added in succession, the first might not be visible to all consumers. But if a value is added and nothing follows for a while, then that value must be distributed promptly to the consumers.

If your consumers only care about more recent states, then use a NotifierKit. To support consumers that need to see all the values, use a SubscriptionKit. This is often appropriate when the iteration represents a changing quantity, like a purse balance, and a consumer updating a UI that doesn't care to hear about any older non-final values, as they are more stale. A Notifier is appropriate even when this quantity changes quickly, as it only communicates non-final values at the rate they're being consumed, bounded by the network round-trip time. All other non-final values are never communicated. The NotifierKit's lossy nature enables this optimization.


Use the SubscriptionKit for pub-sub operations, where subscribers should see each published value starting with the starting point of their subscription. The producer can be described as the publisher and publishes iteration values with the publication using the IterationObserver API. The consumers can be described as subscribers and consume the published iteration values with the subscription using the AsyncIterable API. Since each published value will be sent to all subscribers, the SubscriptionKit should generally not be used with rapidly produced values.

An iteration’s suffix subset is defined by its starting point in the original iteration.

  • A starting point may be a non-final value or a termination.
  • The suffix subset has exactly the original iteration’s members from its starting point to and Including its termination (e.g. if the original is { 2 5 9 13 Fail } with Fail as the termination and a starting point at 9, the subset is { 9 13 Fail }).
  • When a value becomes available on the original iteration, it promptly becomes available on every suffix subset whose starting point is at or before that value (e.g. if the original is { 2 5 9 13 Fail } and 9 becomes available, 9 promptly becomes available to any suffix subset with a starting point of 2, 5, or 9. It does not become available to any subset starting at 13 or Fail).

The values published using the publication define the original iteration. Each subscription has a starting point in that iteration and provides access to a suffix subset of that iteration starting at that starting point. The initial subscription created by the makeSubscriptionKit() call provides the entire iteration. Each subscription is a kind of AsyncIterable which produces any number of AsyncIterators, each of which advance independently starting with that subscription's starting point. These AsyncIterators are SubsciptionIterators which also have a subscribe() method. Calling a SubscriptionIterator's subscribe() method makes a Subscription whose starting point is that SubscriptionIterator's current position at that time.

Neither Alice nor Bob are good starting points to construct an example of subscribe() since their code uses only a Subscription, not a SubscriptionIterator. Carol's code is like Bob's except lower level, using a SubscriptionIterator directly. Where Bob uses observeIteration which takes an AsyncIterable, Carol's uses the lower level observeIterator which takes an AsyncIterator.

import { makePromiseKit } from '@agoric/promiseKit';

const subscriptionIterator = subscription[Symbol.asyncIterator]();
const { promise: afterA, resolve: afterAResolve } = makePromiseKit();

const observer = harden({
  updateState: val => {
    if (val === 'a') {
    console.log('non-final', val);
  finish: completion => console.log('finished', completion),
  fail: reason => console.log('failed', reason),

observeIterator(subscriptionIterator, observer);
// eventually prints
// non-final a
// non-final b
// finished done

// afterA is an ERef<Subscription> so we use observeIteration on it.
observeIteration(afterA, observer);
// eventually prints
// non-final b
// finished done


Data producers have to decide whether to publish losslessly or lossily. If your consumers only care about more recent states, then use a NotifierKit. This is often appropriate when the iteration represents a changing quantity. If you want to support consumers that need to see all the values, then use a SubscriptionKit.

Consumers can choose different ways of processing the data. In all cases, the publisher doesn't have to know the consumers, and the consumers can't interfere with the producer or each other.