react-native-dotenv

Load environment variables using import statements.

Usage no npm install needed!

<script type="module">
  import reactNativeDotenv from 'https://cdn.skypack.dev/react-native-dotenv';
</script>

README

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Load environment variables using import statements.

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Installation

$ npm install react-native-dotenv

Breaking changes: moving from v0.x to v2.x changes both the setup and usage of this package. Please see the migration guide.

Many have been asking about the reasons behind recent changes in this repo. Please see the story wiki page.

Introduction

This babel plugin lets you inject your environment variables into your react-native environment using dotenv for multiple environments.

Usage

.babelrc

Basic setup:

{
  "plugins": [
    ["module:react-native-dotenv"]
  ]
}

If the defaults do not cut it for your project, this outlines the available options for your Babel configuration and their respective default values, but you do not need to add them if you are using the default settings.

{
  "plugins": [
    ["module:react-native-dotenv", {
      "moduleName": "@env",
      "path": ".env",
      "blocklist": null,
      "allowlist": null,
      "blacklist": null, // DEPRECATED
      "whitelist": null, // DEPRECATED
      "safe": false,
      "allowUndefined": true,
      "verbose": false
    }]
  ]
}

Note: for safe mode, it's highly recommended to set allowUndefined to false.

.env

API_URL=https://api.example.org
API_TOKEN=abc123

In users.js

import {API_URL, API_TOKEN} from "@env"

fetch(`${API_URL}/users`, {
  headers: {
    'Authorization': `Bearer ${API_TOKEN}`
  }
})

Also preview the upcoming test app.

[DEPRECATED] White and black lists

Moving forward to a more inclusive language, terms like white and black are being moved away. Future versions will just use allowlist and blocklist while whitelist/blacklist are still supported.

Allow and Block lists

It is possible to limit the scope of env variables that will be imported by specifying a allowlist and/or a blocklist as an array of strings.

{
  "plugins": [
    ["module:react-native-dotenv", {
      "blocklist": [
        "GITHUB_TOKEN"
      ]
    }]
  ]
}
{
  "plugins": [
    ["module:react-native-dotenv", {
      "allowlist": [
        "API_URL",
        "API_TOKEN"
      ]
    }]
  ]
}

Safe mode

Enable safe mode to only allow environment variables defined in the .env file. This will completely ignore everything that is already defined in the environment.

The .env file has to exist.

{
  "plugins": [
    ["module:react-native-dotenv", {
      "safe": true
    }]
  ]
}

Allow undefined

Allow importing undefined variables, their value will be undefined.

{
  "plugins": [
    ["module:react-native-dotenv", {
      "allowUndefined": true
    }]
  ]
}
import {UNDEFINED_VAR} from '@env'

console.log(UNDEFINED_VAR === undefined) // true

When set to false, an error will be thrown. This is no longer default behavior.

Multi-env

This package now supports environment specific variables. This means you may now import environment variables from multiple files, i.e. .env, .env.development, .env.production, and .env.test. This is based on dotenv-flow.

Note: it is not recommended that you commit any sensitive information in .env file to code in case your git repo is exposed. The best practice is to put a .env.template or .env.development.template that contains dummy values so other developers know what to configure. Then add your .env and .env.development to .gitignore. You can also keep sensitive keys in a separate .env.local (and respective .env.local.template) in .gitignore and you can use your other .env files for non-sensitive config.

The base set of variables will be .env and the environment-specific variables will overwrite them.

The variables will automatically be pulled from the appropriate environment and development is the default. The choice of environment is based on your Babel environment first and if that value is not set, your NPM environment, which should actually be the same, but this makes it more robust.

In general, Release is production and Debug is development.

To choose, setup your scripts with NODE_ENV for each environment

// package.json
{
  "scripts": {
    "start:development": "NODE_ENV=development npx react-native start",
    "start:production": "NODE_ENV=production npx react-native start",
  }
}

Experimental feature

One thing that we've noticed is that metro overwrites the test environment variable even if you specify a config so we've added a way to fix this. Make sure to specify the config value as indicated in the wiki and make custom configs for alternative builds. However, if you still need this, such as for a staging / test environment, you can add the APP_ENV environment variable in the CLI.

// package.json
{
  "scripts": {
    "start:staging": "APP_ENV=staging npx react-native start",
  }
}

The above example would use the .env.staging file. The standard word is test, but go nuts.

Note: if you're using APP_ENV, you should avoid using development nor production as values and you should avoid having a .env.development or .env.production. This is a Babel and Node thing that I have little control over unfortunately and is consistent with many other platforms that have an override option, like Gatsby. If you want to use development and production, you should not use APP_ENV, but rather the built-in NODE_ENV=development or NODE_ENV=production.

TypeScript

Option 1: easy mode

Install the @types package npm version

npm install @types/react-native-dotenv

Set the moduleName in your Babel config as react-native-dotenv.

{
  "plugins": [
    ["module:react-native-dotenv", {
      "moduleName": "react-native-dotenv"
    }]
  ]
}

Import your variables from react-native-dotenv:

import {API_URL} from 'react-native-dotenv'

console.log(API_URL)

Option 2: specify types manually

  • Create a types folder in your project
  • Inside that folder, create a *.d.tsfile, say, env.d.ts
  • in that file, declare a module as the following format:
declare module '@env' {
  export const API_BASE: string;
}

Add all of your .env variables inside this module.

  • Finally, add this folder into the typeRoots field in your tsconfig.json file:
{
...
    "typeRoots": ["./src/types"],
...
}

Reference Material

Caveats

When using with babel-loader with caching enabled you will run into issues where environment changes won’t be picked up. This is due to the fact that babel-loader computes a cacheIdentifier that does not take your environment into account.

You can easily clear the cache:

rm -rf node_modules/.cache/babel-loader/*

or

yarn start --reset-cache

or

expo r -c

or

react-native-clean-project

Maybe a solution for updating package.json scripts:

"cc": "rimraf node_modules/.cache/babel-loader/*,",
"android": "npm run cc && react-native run-android",
"ios": "npm run cc && react-native run-ios",

Or you can override the default cacheIdentifier to include some of your environment variables.

The tests that use require('@env') are also not passing.

For nextjs, you must set moduleName to react-native-dotenv.

Credits

If you'd like to become an active contributor, please send us a message.

Miscellaneous

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